Podcast Transcriptions

Pursue What Matters

Episode 174: Your Brain on Stress

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Y Dr. Melissa Smith 0:00
Is your brain a blackbox? Do you understand what happens in your brain when you are stressed? Do you know how coping can help you? So join me today as I break down the functions of the brain so that you can cope more effectively.

Dr. Melissa Smith 0:15
Hi, I’m Dr. Melissa Smith, welcome to the Pursue What Matters podcast where we focus on what it takes to thrive in love and work. So the brain body connection, what is it? And how is it helping you? Or how is it possibly wreaking havoc on you? So you know, we spent decades believing that our brain and body were disconnected or assuming such right in psychology, we didn’t talk about it, we never really discussed that the obvious reality that our brain and our body are deeply connected, that when we have thoughts, that results in a cascade of physiological results, and that that works the other way as well. But in recent years, thankfully, finally, we’re starting to appreciate the fact that there is absolutely no clean separation from our brain and body. And I just look at how this has happened. I’m like, why would we want this disconnection? And I think, you know, the only answer that I really can come to is because, you know, emotions feel messy, and we don’t really know what to do with them. And so if we can kind of disconnect the brain that head from the body, and not really look at those Messy emotions, well, then maybe we’ll be okay. And maybe we can make sense of our life. But that separation is actually what creates the messiness and our failure to integrate what’s happening both in our brain and in our body. And so I think it’s the thing is a good change.

Dr. Melissa Smith 1:58
So, you know, shockingly, for too long psychology and psychiatry, have treated these as separate entities and many of the social sciences have gone right along with that, right? That’s happened in medicine, for sure, there’s been a disconnection. But of course, we know that our brains and our bodies are absolutely connected. And so today, I want to provide you with a little primer on the organization of the brain, to help you better understand this connection, so that you can improve your coping. So we’re doing it for a specific purpose. And I think this, this primer that I have for you, I think is a really great way to make sense of what’s happening with your brain relative to stress relative to emotion. So I think this understanding can be really powerful, and can really help you target your coping, so that you really are helping yourself in the most efficient and effective ways. And so we’ll start with your brain and explained in three steps, we’ll see if I can do it in three steps. And then we’ll learn about the four core regions of the brain and what they do for us. And again, we’re looking at what’s happening in the brain relative to stressors, emotions, and coping.

Dr. Melissa Smith 3:11
And so I will then introduce the tree of regulation. Now, this comes to us from Dr. Bruce D. Perry. So he’s a very gifted physician who does a lot with trauma and helping us to integrate and make sense of trauma. And if we think about trauma, it is intensified stress. So you know, you don’t have to have had a history of trauma to benefit from this discussion. Because what’s true is we’re, we’re always as humans, constantly challenged, by our surroundings, by life by some of the thoughts that we have. And so, you know, his background is from trauma. And I think, with that, right, he’s developed really, really great ways to talk about what’s happening in the brain and body. And so we’ll be pulling from some of his work. And this work is, is in a book that came out not too long ago, by Dr. Bruce Perry, and by Oprah Winfrey. And it’s entitled, What happened to you conversations on trauma, resilience and healing. And I think it’s a really powerful book. You know, as a trauma specialist, I found it really helpful as a clinician and for my clients, but I also think it has so many applications to daily life to coping with the stressors of life. And so again, you don’t have to have experienced some of these big T trauma experiences. It’s enough to be a human on the planet facing challenges to have this material be really helpful for you.

Dr. Melissa Smith 4:49
I think that Dr. Perry’s discussion of that brain body connection as it relates to coping is probably about the best one that I’ve come across. So I’ve been geeked out about it for for while now since the book came out, and I think there can be value in sharing that with you. So I hope you agree with me. And then of course, I hope you will join me next week, as we use this understanding of the brain to help you identify your pattern of stress. And I will give you some step by step guidance for regulating your brain and your body with this new understanding of the organization of the brain.

Dr. Melissa Smith 5:25
So I hope you will hang in there with me, and look forward to next week, as well. And so every week with a podcast, my goal is to help you pursue what matters. By strengthening your confidence to lead, I tried to do that in one of three ways, leading with clarity, which helps to connect you to purpose, what are you doing? And why does it matter? I tried to do that by helping you lead with curiosity, which is all about self reflection, self awareness, so that you can lead yourself better. And so curiosity is all about understanding what’s happening within you. And so that’s really the focus for us today as we explore this brain body connection. And then the third way, of course, that I tried to help you is by leading and building a community. And I think, you know, we’ll certainly there will certainly be applications to that as well. Because when you have a better understanding of what’s happening in the brain, and what might be happening, when folks are facing challenges, you can show up with more empathy, you can show up with compassion, you can really, you know, speak to the underlying needs, and help those that you work with colleagues loved ones, so lots of applications at both work at home.

Dr. Melissa Smith 6:37
Okay, so let’s first start with your brain explained. Now, of course, I am not a neuroscientist. I’m not a neurosurgeon, right? I I’m taking a very focused view of the brain. And that is relative to stressors and coping. So just know, right, like, obviously, this isn’t, this isn’t all they wrote on the human brain. But I do think, you know, again, this is Dr. Perry’s explanation, that this, this way of thinking about the brain can be really helpful. So as we look at your brain, right, there are three keys to really help you understand the hierarchical organization of the human brain, right. So think about it with anything else, right? Like, if you were to, you were going to maybe build a home, you need to draw up plans, and you have this this plan of what the house is going to look like, where the rooms are, where the bathrooms are, and having that mental picture of what you’re going to build, or what may already exist, right is so incredibly helpful, because it gives you perspective. And so that’s what we’re gonna do with these three keys. So key one is the brain is divided into four inter connected areas. And we’ll go over these in detail. But we have at the base of the of the brain, right, the base of the head, we have the brainstem. And then from there we go up to the die in Cephalon. And then from there, we go up to the limbic, and then at the very top of the brain is the cortex region, okay, so just know that the brain is divided into four interconnected areas. And so from the base of the brain moving up, we have the brainstem, the diencephalon, the limbic and the cortex. Now, I hope that you will also head over to my Instagram page, which is @dr.melissasmith I’m going to have some nice diagrams, I’m gonna have some really good explanations.

Dr. Melissa Smith 8:35
So if you’re listening to this, and you’re like, I’m not catching all of this, that’s okay. Head to Instagram, I’ll have a lot more information there. And of course, I’d love to connect with you if you have questions or comments on what you what you hear here.

Dr. Melissa Smith 8:50
Okay, so now let’s move to key two. And that is that the structural and functional complexity increases from the lower simpler areas of the brainstem up to the cortex. Okay, so if we think about the brain, at that base at that brainstem, the structures and the functions are very simple, very basic, they’re very important, but they’re very simple. And as you move up the brain, right, so think about from the, from your neck, the base of your head up to the top of your head, the structure and the functions of the brain increase in complexity. Okay, so the best way, I think, to describe this, and this is how Dr. Perry describes it, is imagining an upside down triangle with the lower simpler areas of functioning at the bottom of the brain, represented by the tip of the triangle. So you think about your brainstem at the bottom of your, at the bottom of your brain would be that tip of the triangle. And then as we move up, right, we’re increasing in complexity of structures and functions. And I think that’s a really simple, nice way to To imagine that and so the higher more complex areas of functioning at the top of the brain are represented by that wide base of the triangle. And so we think about the cortex at the very top, it is the widest it is the structurally and functionally most complex part of the brain. This is when we think about executive functioning, right, which doesn’t come online for a while. It takes a while, right, especially like into like the 20s, for most of us to really get get rolling nicely with executive functioning. And so it just kind of helps us to see that that brain develops functionally, and it kind of develops up. And so that’s the second key.

Dr. Melissa Smith 10:42
So now let’s move to the third key. And that is that the cortex at the very top of the brain, right, that big, wide base of the triangle mediates the most uniquely human functions, such as speech and language, abstract cognition, the capacity to reflect on the past and envision the future. So when we think about what separates humans, from other mammals, think about the cortex. Think about the things that are uniquely human speech and language, cognition, abstract cognition, right to be able to think about thinking, the capacity to reflect on the past and envision the future. So that cortex is really very important, and it is something that is uniquely human. So again, this first point is your brain explained, and I shared with you three key so key one, the brain is divided into four interconnected areas, key to the structural and functional complexity increases from the lower simpler areas of the brain stem up to the cortex. So think about that upside down triangle. And then key three, the cortex, at the very top of the brain mediates the most uniquely human functions. So when you think about what does it mean to be human? Think about that cortex.

Dr. Melissa Smith 11:56
Okay, so why does this brain organization matter? Why am I sharing this with you? And so my answer to this, why does it matter? Because by understanding and imagining the structure and function of the brain, you can help yourself cope more effectively, while also better understanding what others may be experiencing and how to best help them. Right when you are blindsided by stress. Or blindsided by a fight or flight response. It can be terrifying, right, and one of the most important ways that we heal from stressors from challenges from traumas, is to understand what happened to find a way to make sense of the senseless right, which can be challenging to do, but find a way to integrate and understand what is happening in my body right now. Because right now, I’m freaked out, I don’t know what’s happening, I’m just scared. But when you can understand what’s happening within your brain, and can even picture it right with this triangle. It can bring calm, it can bring understanding, you recognize like, Okay, well, maybe I don’t have to panic, maybe I don’t have to freak out like, it’s still unsettling. I don’t like this feeling. But there are things that I can do to help myself that is powerful. And so when it comes to stress, coping and resilience, having a good awareness of what’s happening internally helps you cope more effectively. And this understanding is the path to greater resilience and well being. So that’s why it matters. And you know, I get really, really passionate about this, because I have seen the way that this it changes everything for folks, it certainly has changed everything for me in my own life. And so that’s why it matters. So let’s head to our second point, which is we’re going to do a little bit of a deep dive into understanding the four areas of the brain. So right I mentioned those, that’s where we think about that upside down triangle.

Dr. Melissa Smith 13:57
So let’s learn a little bit more about the four areas of the brain and what’s happening in each of those areas. And so first, let’s talk about the cortex. So this is the top of the brain where higher functioning is happening. So this is where we think about executive functioning, to think about thinking. And so imagine that upside down triangle with that wider space of the triangle at the top, this is known as the cortex. So what happens in the cortex, the cortex, right? If you remember from our, from our third key is where the functions that make us uniquely human are happening. So creativity, thinking language, values, having a sense of purpose, time, right, like being able to reflect on the past, being able to get excited about the future, and hope all of these are happening in the cortex, right? So this is a pretty important part of the brain. So now let’s move down to the second part of the brain. So this would be you know, the below the core Text moving down into the brain and right we’re moving to more simpler functions, right? As we move down in the brain, we’re moving to simpler functions. As we move up in the brain, we’re moving to more complex functions. This second area of the brain is known as the limbic system, the limbic region, right? And so moving down from the base of the triangle, next is the limbic region of the brain. So what’s happening here? So the first thing you should think of when you think about limbic is emotion. So two things actually, I would say, are really key to the limbic area. And that is first emotion and second memory. So the limbic system is often where people really get caught in stress, and certainly traumatic events. When we think about the limbic system, think about the amygdala, when you think about the Middle East also think about emotions, this is where we do emotional processing. So what else is happening in the limbic area? So right, we talked about memory, we talked about emotions, this is also the region of the brain responsible for reward our reward system. So when something feels good, we want more of that or something, it does not feel good, we want less of it. That’s the reward system. And that’s happening in the limbic system, right? Because you think about, oh, that was pleasurable, right? Think about that emotion, I want more of that, right. And so your limbic area is going to help you remember that experience, so you can get more of it. So the reward system really makes sense that it fits there with memory and emotions. And then another very important function is happening in the limbic region, and that is bonding. That’s where we attach with people. This is where we think about, you know, forming secure attachment, bonds, connection, attachment, affection, love relationships. And so we often talk about the limbic region as the seat of emotions and memory.

Dr. Melissa Smith 16:55
So this area is key to attachment in relationships, experiences of trauma, especially relational trauma, and our most intense emotions, such as love, fear and terror. So when we think of these, when we think about strong emotions, I want you to think about the limbic region. Now we know something’s happening throughout the whole brain. That’s why we’re talking about all four areas. But that limbic region is really the seat of emotions and memory. So now moving down into the brain, right, one step lower, we’re going to the third area of the brain, which is known as a DI encephalon region. So moving down into the brain to the third or middle region of the of that upside down triangle is that di encephalon region of the brain. Now remember, as we go down, this, the functions get simpler, they’re less complex. But again, really, really important. So simple, does not mean unimportant.

Dr. Melissa Smith 17:50
So what’s happening in this region of the brain, this is where arousal is happening. So think about that. Arousal can just be awake state, sleep state, it can be sexual arousal, right? That can mean a lot of things. Another thing that’s happening is sleep. So what’s happening with our sleep? Do we have a good circadian rhythm? Or are we do we have fractured sleep in this region also, are the controls around appetite. So whether that’s a loss of appetite, or, you know, wanting to binge on carbs as a way of coping with emotions, and then the last function, or the last main function that we’re going to talk about today in the diencephalon region, is movement. So moving your body, whether that’s with exercise, whether that’s just you know, walking, or any of the movements of the body are really managed here in this die encephalon region. And we’ll talk next week about how we really need to pay attention to all of these different functions in these regions of the brain to really help ourselves comprehensively cope. Because if we’re spending all of our time trying to think about our, our challenges differently, and we’re, we’re rejecting attending to our sleep or our movement, we are not going to overcome those challenges very effectively. So it’s so important that we’re really addressing all functions of the brain to really help ourselves.

Dr. Melissa Smith 19:20
So now let’s talk about the fourth area of the brain. So this is where we’re moving down to the tip of that triangle right at the base of the brain, right? So this is right above, right, right, right, right where your neck and your brain meet, right the brainstem. So the top of the upside down triangle at the bottom of the brain is the brainstem. This is the area that’s responsible for our most basic and automatic life functions. So again, simple right? We think about this with other mammals, right? These are some functions happening for them as well. So simple and basic, but not unimportant, right? Like actually Very important, if we don’t have the brainstem functioning well, we aren’t living, we’re dead. And so what’s happening there? So things to pay attention to here in terms of function include temperature, so temperature regulation, respiration, what’s the breathing, like? What’s the heart rate, like, that’s really important. And then cardiac function. So we think about blood pressure, we think about getting blood to, to all the regions of the body, right? We think about lightheadedness, potentially here. And so those are the four areas of the brain and just a quick description of some of those functions. And so I hope you can start to see especially when it comes to coping, and facing challenges, how we really do want an integration of all four of those areas. So again, the four areas of the brain starting at the top of the brain include the cortex, which which is all about higher functioning second limbic, which, which is all about emotion and memory, bonding and reward. Third, we go to the DI encephalon, which is all about arousal, sleep, appetite, movement, and then fourth, the brainstem, which are those most basic and automatic life functions such as temperature, regulation, respiration, and cardiac function. And so now let’s look at the last main point that I want to share with you today. Right, so we’ve talked about three keys to really your brain explained to understand that, and then we looked at the four areas of the brain. And now with this third point, I want to help you understand how the brain processes and responds to stress, right, we all have stress.

Dr. Melissa Smith 21:40
So this is where I want to talk to you about the tree of regulation. And again, this comes to us from Dr. Perry. So Bruce Perry, he uses this tree of regulation. And so what I want you to do is imagine a tree of regulation, right, so a tree that extends through your brain, with the roots of the tree extending into your body through the neck. So right think about that upside down triangle, and that is your tree. And we’ve got the roots of that tree extending down into your body through your neck. And then we also have tree limbs extending up through your brain through the highest regions of the brain, right, so those limbs reach up to the limbic region, and the cortex region. So the tree of regulation is a set of neural networks. So right, these are just brain pathways that our body uses to help us process and respond to stress. And so you think about this tree of regulation in your brain, but it extends down to your body and clear up to your cortex. And that’s really where we think about this brain body connection. You can I mean, sure, you’ve had these experiences, where maybe you’ve been cut off in traffic, or you’ve, you know, received a horrible news or a fright. You know, the, the response is automatic, right? Like, you might, you might notice that you start sweating immediately, or your pupils dilate. For me, I always get a pit in the stomach, and that is automatic, right? My brain is not saying, Gosh, this is kind of scary. And then that message gets sent to my stomach. Now it’s automatic. And that tree of regulation is really how this is happening. We think about the polyvagal theory and and how that really, there’s just this direct line throughout our body. And so this tree of regulation, right through these neural networks really helps us to process and respond to stress.

Dr. Melissa Smith 23:39
And so, you know, I have talked about this before. And I love that Dr. Perry also highlights this. And it’s important to remember that stress is normal and functional, it is part of what it means to be human. If you’ve listened to the podcast at all, you know, I’m pretty geeky about stress. So stress is not good or bad. It’s part of normal development. And understanding the function of stress can actually help you improve well being right. So this is why we’re learning about the brain and the different functions of the brain. So stress only becomes a problem when we fail to understand it and cope with it effectively. Right. So the meaning that we attach to stress actually shifts the impact stress has on our body. So I have some other podcasts on that topic. So I won’t say too much about it now, but it you know, this, this podcast is another way of making the case for understanding what’s happening in your body, so that you can recognize when stress hits you, and that you can integrate it without, you know, without being freaked out by it without labeling it good or bad. And so, understanding how that brain processes stress can help you cope. So, you know stress is often it’s it’s, it’s really labeled very negatively, it’s used negatively but stress is merely a demand on one or more of our bodies many physical logical systems. So it’s an experience where it’s like, hey, we need to marshal some resources here because you’re facing a challenge. So I think that’s a good way to think of stress. So it’s very functional, it’s important that we have this stress response. And so stressors are those things that cause a stress response on the body. stressors can be anything from hunger, thirst, cold, working out, public speaking, a work promotion, and argument with a friend, right? These are things that cause a stress response on the body that demand the body to respond in some way. And then stress is the effect of the stress response on the body. So that is when those resources are marshaled, what’s happening in your body. And so again, stress is an essential and positive part of normal development. And it’s a key element in learning our stress response helps us to remember the experience we’re having having, right. And that happens in the limbic system, if you remember, it helps us to master new skills, and to build resilience. So if we didn’t have stress, we would not grow, we would not learn, we would not develop, and we would not thrive.

Dr. Melissa Smith 26:06
So think about little kiddos, right, and executive functioning really starts to fully integrate in, you know, the 20s. But that is a function of kiddos, learning, growing, stumbling, and developing, and so right like, and that’s the way it is for us throughout our lives. So we shouldn’t get to adulthood and say, Okay, now I’m done, I shouldn’t have any stressors, and like good luck to you if that were possible anyway, but it wouldn’t, I wouldn’t wish that for you. Because it is through facing challenges that we develop greater wellbeing, and greater resilience. But the key is really understanding what you know, the impact of stress and how to help ourselves in those moments. And so the key factor in determining whether stress is positive, or destructive, is understanding the pattern of stress. And so, you know, we’ll talk a lot more about this next week. But I just want to say a little bit about these core regulatory networks. So these are known as CRns, or neural systems. So these originate in the lower parts of the brain. So think, again, of the tip of the triangle at the bottom of the brain. And these, these CRMs, these core regulatory networks are at the base of the brain, and they spread throughout the entire brain, like the branches of a tree, right. So think about that tree of regulation. And these networks really work together to keep us regulated in the face of various stressors, right, and you can think about that in lots of ways, right? Let’s say you’re outside, playing volleyball for a few hours, those core regulatory networks are helping to regulate your temperature. So you don’t have heatstroke, right. And of course, sometimes, we we, our system has a hard time regulating that because it’s such a hot day, or we don’t get enough water. But those networks are working on your behalf all the time. And so there are two key inputs through the brainstem into these core regulatory networks. So the first is interoception. And that is a fancy word for input from the inside world.

Dr. Melissa Smith 28:21
So what’s happening within your body. So when you noticed, maybe you have a stomachache, or you notice that you have a headache, or you notice that your left toe is tingling, that’s all interoception. So it’s input to your brain from your inside world. So from the body. So that’s the first key input into the brainstem. And then the second key input to the brainstem is the five senses. So this is input from the outside world, you know, taste, touch, smell sounds, right, like what’s happening with our five senses, to help us kind of make sense of the world around us. And so in addition to these two key inputs are those core regulatory networks. So you know, these might sound familiar, and we’re just gonna, we’re just gonna go over them, we’re not going to talk about them in depth, but the neuro endocrine system, so think about cortisol, the stress hormone, and other stress hormones that’s happening there. We also have the neuro immune system. So this is our immune response. Right? So when we experience chronic stress, our immune system takes a response takes a hit, because when we have a stress response in the body, right, we have a heightened immune response. And over time, that response can break down because of the chronic activation of it. And then we also have the autonomic system. So right this includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. This is often what we think of when we think about that frontline stress response, a flip, fight or flight, right so what happens physiologically in our bodies who have fight and flight and we have rest and digest and those are kind It goes to those two corollary responses. And so collectively the branches of this tree, right, so these core regulatory networks and the interoception, and the five senses, they work together.

Dr. Melissa Smith 30:17
They work together in the branches of this tree of regulation, to direct or influence all functions of the brain, such as thinking and feeling, and the body. So think about your heart, stomach, lungs, pancreas, right. So that’s that very quick stress response. These branches are working to keep everything in your brain and body in equilibrium, everything regulated, everything in balance. And a basic definition of a stressor is a deviation from normalcy, right? Or normalcy is disrupted, the greater the disruption to normalcy, the greater the stress response in the body. Now, there are some mediating factors of that, but your body is working to keep everything in balance. And so if you have a really strong stress response, you can imagine it’s harder for your body to regulate that system. And so this is where coping skills really make a big difference, because they give your they give your brain and your body a helping hand, to help you to get to regulation a little more quickly, so that we don’t stay in a heightened stress response, because the longer we stay in a heightened stress response, when the acute stressor has departed, right, the risk is gone, the more susceptible we are to the negative impacts of stress. So right we the chronic immune system activation, chronic high stress hormone levels, that sort of thing. And so it’s really important to recognize that we want to help ourselves regulate and that is, you know, it’s important to understand the brain and the body connection in that process. And so my last point, I just have a few Brain Body regulation takeaways, right?

Dr. Melissa Smith 32:01
So I know this was a lot of information. But you know, my, I want you to just carry a few takeaways. And I have three takeaways for you. Right? To the question of what do we do with this? Right? Okay, now I understand I’ve got an upside down triangle in my brain. What do I do with this? So the first takeaway, thoughts, beliefs, memories, and emotions are impacted by inputs from the body, right? So that’s that inner world that interoception and the outer world, so we think about traumas, difficulty stressors, think about those five senses. And so the takeaway here is that coping, regulation and well being rely on present awareness and attention to what’s happening in both the inner world in your body and the outer world, right? The stressors, the challenges, the experiences that are impacting you. And you know, with this when we have mindlessness, avoidance, or emotional numbing, which I tell you, it is, that is the opiate of the masses is emotional numbing, it makes it very difficult for us to understand and integrate experiences, because we are effectively cutting ourselves off from understanding what’s happening in our body. And the only way to cope and integrate our experience is by being aware and integrated and to make to be able to integrate what’s happening outside of us and what’s happening inside of us. And so that’s the first takeaway is that we coping and regulation really rely on that present awareness and attention, that ability to be able to understand what’s happening in your body and outside of your body, and that mindlessness and emotional numbing, absolutely undermine our ability to cope. The second, the second point here with a takeaway is that all body systems can be impacted by the thoughts, beliefs, memories and emotions happening in the brain.

Dr. Melissa Smith 33:59
Right. So this is a full body experience. And so the takeaway here is that thoughts are not benign, right, judgmental and self critical thoughts toward the self have a cascade effect throughout the body. And that happens much more quickly than you even realize. So instead of rejection and self criticism, instead, focus on acceptance and self compassion toward your fear of thoughts and emotions. Those emotions will not take you down and learning to turn towards them. And have some compassion for yourself enough is actually the process of integration. That’s actually the process of how we, how we regulate and bring our body into equilibrium. So make room for them in your experience for better coping. A second takeaway from this point is that the Body Keeps the Score. Now that’s based that’s the title of an excellent book by a trauma researcher. And it is so true when we avoid dealing with our painful memories or difficult experiences and core beliefs, we end up dealing with them through bodily systems, right, the Body Keeps the Score. So whether that is chronic heightened stress, response, immunosuppression, and activated on an autonomic nervous system, I mean, we are just on high alert all the time. And so we can’t, there’s no way to sidestep stress coping, because we will pay the price in, in our body if we don’t, if we don’t take a proactive role in integrating it. And so I hope that this information can be helpful for you. And then the third takeaway is respecting the brain body connection leads to greater wellbeing, resilience and help.

Dr. Melissa Smith 35:45
So I really hope that this understanding of what’s happening in the brain can help you to be even more committed to helping yourself in those moments when you feel challenged. And we think about full bodied, helping yourself. And so we talked about what’s happening in those four regions of the brain. And I hope you will join me next week, because we are going to do a deep dive into those four areas of the brain and I will have targeted coping skills for each area of that brain because it is really important to meet your stressors, where they reside in your brain, that will that will be much more efficient and effective in terms of coping. So in the meantime, head on over to my website to check out the show notes with the resources for this episode www.drmelissasmith.com/174-brainonstress So one more time, that’s www.drmelissasmith.com/174-brainonstress. I’ll have some links to some of my stress podcasts. So you can learn a little bit more there. And I also have a link to the book What Happened to You from Dr. Perry and Oprah Winfrey. I hope you will connect with me on Instagram. I’ll have lots of good educational pieces there. And in the meantime, I’m Dr. Melissa Smith. Remember love and work, work in love. That’s all there is. Until next time, take good care.

Transcribed by https://otter.ai